#5 Most Important Medical Discoveries In History

Most Important Medical Discoveries

Vaccines (1796)

It is difficult to pinpoint when vaccines became an accepted practice, mostly because the journey to discovery was long and complicated. Beginning with an attempt by Edward Jenner in 1796 to use inoculations to tame the infamous smallpox virus, the usefulness and popularity of vaccines grew very quickly.

Throughout the 1800s and early 1900s, various vaccinations were created to combat some of the world’s deadliest diseases, including smallpox, rabies, tuberculosis, and cholera. Over the course of 200 years, one of the deadliest diseases known to man – the smallpox – was wiped off the face of the earth. Since then, virtually all vaccines have worked using the same concept. That was until a new technology, called mRNA, came along and created game-changing possibilities for the future of healthcare. Its high effectiveness, capacity for rapid development and potential for low production costs was evident during the Covid-19 pandemic two separate mRNA vaccines were developed and approved for use in just a matter of months.

Anaesthesia (1846)

Before the first use of a general anaesthetic in the mid-19th century, surgery was undertaken only as a last resort, with several patients opting for death rather than enduring the excruciating ordeal. Although there were countless earlier experiments with anaesthetic dating as far back to 4000 BC – William T. G.

Morton made history in 1846 when he successfully used ether as an anaesthetic during surgery. Soon after, a faster-acting substance called chloroform became widely used but was considered high-risk after several fatalities were reported. Since the 1800s, safer anaesthetics have been developed, allowing millions of life-saving, painless operations to take place.

Medical imaging (1895)

The first medical imaging machines were X-rays. The X-ray, a form of electromagnetic radiation, was ‘accidentally’ invented in 1895 by German physicist Wilhelm Conrad Rӧntgen when experimenting with electrical currents through glass cathode-ray tubes. The discovery transformed medicine overnight and by the following year, Glasgow hospital opened the world's very first radiology department.

Ultrasound, although originally discovered many years before, began being used for medical diagnosis in 1955. This medical imaging device uses high frequency sound waves to create a digital image, and was no less than ground-breaking in terms of detecting pre-natal conditions and other pelvic and abdominal abnormalities. In 1967, the computed tomography (CT) scanner was created, which uses X-ray detectors and computers to diagnose many different types of disease, and has become a fundamental diagnostic tool in modern medicine.

The next major medical imaging technology was discovered in 1973 when Paul Lauterbur produced the first magnetic resonance image (MRI). The nuclear magnetic resonance data creates detailed images within the body and is a crucial tool in detecting life-threatening conditions including tumours, cysts, damage to the brain and spinal cord and some heart and liver problems.

Antibiotics (1928)

Alexander Fleming’s penicillin, the world’s first antibiotic, completely revolutionised the war against deadly bacteria. Famously, the Scottish biologist accidentally discovered the anti-bacterial ‘mould’ in a petri dish in 1928. However, Fleming’s incredible findings were not properly recognised until the 1940s, when they began being mass-produced by American drug companies for use in World War II.

Two other scientists were responsible for the mass distribution of penicillin, Australian Howard Florey and Nazi-Germany refugee Ernst Chain, and their development of the substance ended up saving millions of future lives. Unfortunately, over the years certain bacterium have become increasingly resistant to antibiotics, leading to a world-wide crisis that calls for the pharmaceutical industry to develop new anti-bacterial treatments as soon as possible.

Organ transplants (1954)

In December 1954, the first successful kidney transplant was carried out by Dr Joseph Murray and Dr David Hume in Boston, USA. Despite many previous attempts in history, this was the first instance where the recipient of an organ transplant survived the operation. The turning point came when various technical issues were overcome, such as vascular anastomosis (the connection between two blood vessels), placement of the kidney and immune response.

In 1963, the first lung transplant was carried out, followed by a pancreas/kidney in 1966, and liver and heart in 1967. Aside from saving thousands of lives in the years following, transplant procedures have also become increasingly innovative and complex, with doctors successfully completing the first hand transplant in 1998 and full-face transplant in 2010!

via ProClinical.com

#5 Easy To Remember Google Docs Shortcuts

Google uses .New domains to create shortcuts for Google Docs

Google Docs Shortcuts

Google is using its .New domain name in a unique way. People can now type certain .new domains in their browsers to instantly create Google Docs, Sheets, Slides, Sites and Forms.

If you are logged into your Google account, try going to one of these domains:

Type doc.new to create a new Document.
Type form.new to create a new Form.
Type sheet.new to create a new Sheet.
Type slide.new to create a new Slide.
Type site.new to create a new Site.

#10 Most Common Phobias And Their Meanings

Most Common Phobias And Fears

Acrophobia

Acrophobia is the fear of heights and it affects more than 6% of people. People who have acrophobia can have anxiety attacks, which causes them to avoid high places, such as bridges, towers, or tall buildings. It’s normal to have some degree of fear when encountering heights, this phobia involves an intense fear that can result in panic attacks and avoidance behaviors.

Aerophobia

Aerophobia, or the fear of flying, affects between 10% – 40% of U.S. adults even though airplane accidents are actually very uncommon. Symptoms commonly associated with aerophobia include trembling, rapid heartbeat, and feeling disoriented. This phobia can cause people to avoid flying altogether. Aerophobia is often treated using exposure therapy, in which the person is gradually and progressively introduced to flying.

Arachnophobia

Arachnophobia is the fear of spiders and other arachnids. The sight of a spider can cause a fear response, but in some cases, just an image or even the thought of a spider can lead to overwhelming fear and panic. One of the most common explanations for this and similar animal phobias is that these creatures once posed a threat to our ancestors who lacked the knowledge and tools to deal with injuries from animals and insects.

Ophidiophobia

One of the most common phobias, ophidiophobia is the fear of snakes. It can be attributed to personal experiences, evolutionary causes, or cultural influences. Some suggest that because snakes can be poisonous, our ancestors who avoided such dangers were more likely to survive and pass down their genes.

Cynophobia

Cynophobia is the fear of dogs, which is often associated with specific personal experiences, such as being bitten by a dog during childhood. These events can be very traumatic and can cause fear responses that last well into adulthood. Unlike a normal apprehension of unfamiliar dogs, cynophobia is an irrational and excessive fear that can have a serious effect on your personal life.

Trypanophobia

Trypanophobia is the fear of injections. This phobia can cause people to avoid medical treatments and doctors. It’s estimated that 20%-30% of adults are affected by this type of phobia. When people with this phobia have to get an injection, they may experience feelings of extreme dread and elevated heart rate leading up to the procedure. Some even pass out during the injection.

Astraphobia

Astraphobia is the fear of thunder and lightning. When people with this phobia experience such weather-related phenomena, they become filled with overwhelming feelings of fear. People with this phobia tend to develop an excessive preoccupation with the weather. Symptoms include shaking, rapid heart rate, and increased respiration.

Agoraphobia

Agoraphobia is the fear of being alone in a situation or place where escape might be difficult. Agoraphobia may include the fear of open spaces, crowded areas, or situations that are likely to trigger a panic attack. Some people avoid leaving their homes to stay away from triggering events. Approximately one-third of people with panic disorder develop agoraphobia.

Mysophobia

Mysophobia is the excessive fear of germs and dirt. People who suffer from this phobia can engage in extreme cleaning, compulsive hand washing, and avoid things or situations that they think might be dirty. In some cases, this phobia may be related to obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Social Phobia (Social Anxiety Disorder)

Social phobia is the fear of social situations. This phobia can be quite debilitating and, for some, it can become so severe that it causes people to miss events, places, and people who are likely to trigger an anxiety attack. People with social phobia fear being watched or humiliated in front of others. Social phobias typically develop during puberty and can last throughout life if not treated. The most common form of this phobia is a fear of public speaking.

via BaptistHealth.com

#10 Most Melodious ABBA Songs

Abba Hits Billboard

I Do, I Do, I Do, I Do, I Do (1982)

Hasta Mañana (1974)

One Of Us (1981)

Dancing Queen (1974)

If It Wasn't For The Nights (1979)

Super Trouper (1980)

Thank You For The Music (1977)

Waterloo (1974)

Mamma Mia (1974)

Happy New Year (1980)

CSS Color Schemes

The CSS Style

# HTML/CSS color scheme display
# Rounded corenrs, colors hover effect
# Responsive and minimal code
# 5 lines of CSS code
# Free

The HTML

Demo

Soft Peach / #f2eeeb
Meteorite / #412b76
Dark Mint Green / #2ee8b6

#6 Stunning Rainbow Color Schemes

Rainbow Color Palettes

Rainbow palette #1

Pale Rose / #f7c4c4
Dairy Cream / #f7e6bb
Buttermilk / #f6f7b2
Celadon / #bef7c5
Tropical Blue / #c2def7

Rainbow palette #2

Cerulean / #01b0dd
Seafoam Blue / #85d1bc
Dairy Cream / #f1e5bc
Deep Blush / #f572a0
Coral Pink / #f5857b

Rainbow palette #3

Light Rose / #f5cacf
Chardonnay / #f5ca8b
Pearl Aqua / #8adbc5
Tiffany Blue / #7ed3d7
Hot Pink / #f361ab

Rainbow palette #4

Bermuda / #81dac6
Light Grey Green / #c8dd9f
Chalky / #f5d48f
Coral Pink / #f28376
Light Wisteria / #c4a4d1

Rainbow palette #5

Hippie Blue / #4da3ac
Valentine Red / #e55556
Sand / #eccb72
Faded Purple / #9e6697
Casper / #b4b5d0

Rainbow palette #6

Light Teal / #87e3cd
Light Sage / #d1e6a6
Pale Canary / #fefc96
Coral Pink / #fc887a
Wisteria Purple / #ccabdb